Super Resolution Imaging

It is commonly believed that the resolution of an optical lens system is limited by the diffractive nature of the light to 200 nm – 300 nm. Breaking the diffraction limit and thus improving the resolution of an optical microscope to the order of 50 nm is the focus of this research topic. Our approach is to utilize emerging plasmonics and metamaterials to manipulate evanescent waves to achieve super resolution. Specific techniques include the optical hyperlens, the far-field superlens (FSL), plasmonic structured illumination microscopy (PSIM), metamaterial immersion lens (MIL), and metalens.

Optical Hyperlens

Far-field SuperLens (FSL)

Plasmonic Structured Illumination Microscopy (PSIM)


Metamaterial Immersion Lens (MIL)




Single Molecule Localization


Super Contrast Imaging and Biophotonics

The contrast of a resolved image is another important aspect of microscopy that is as important as resolution. For instance, phase contrast microscopy is a widely used contrast-enhancing optical technique that can be utilized to produce high-contrast images of translucent specimens. Our goal is to develop novel, plasmonic-assisted, super-contrast imaging techniques that are suitable for biological imaging

Plasmonic Dark-field Microscopy



Nanomaterials and metamaterials

The material response to an external stimulus is governed not only by its chemical compositions but also the spatial arrangement of its constituents with respect to each other at multiple length scales. Our goal is to explore artificial materials with properties beyond the natural materials for extraordinary electromagnetic/acoustic wave manipulations by appropriate material architecture design at meta-atom level (deep subwavelength scale).

Plasmonic Metamaterials at VIS Frequencies

Birefringence Metals

Metal/dielectrics Composite


MIR Metamaterials


Acoustic Metamaterials




Nanofabrication mainly relies on electron beam, focused ion beam (FIB), and nanoimprint lithographies. Such techniques are slow and expensive. Mass-fabrication may be performed by conventional photolithography; however, the resolution is diffraction limited. Our goal is to develop scalable, cost-effective super resolution photolithography techniques for nanofabrication.

Surface Plasmon Interference Nanolithography (SPIN)

Far-field SuperLens (FSL) Lithography

Hyperlens Based Lithography



Plasmonics involves the interaction between EM waves and metal nanostructures. Due to the plasmonic mode excitation, light can be confined to deep sub-wavelength scales. Our goal is to investigate the energy transportation mechanisms and applications at nanometer length scales.

Plasmonic Interference

Plasmonic Metamaterial Waveguides

2D Plasmonic Manipulations


Plasmonic Lens


Plasmonic Enhancement



Novel Optical Phenomena and Applications

We have strong interest in the exploration of counter intuitive optical phenomena and their potential applications. Such phenomena typically rely on rich underlying physics and advanced engineering principles.   

Negative Refraction





Ultrafast Optoelectronics